Heading a football can significantly affect a player’s brain function and memory for 24 hours, a study has found.
Researchers said they had identified “small but significant changes in brain function” after players headed the ball 20 times.
Memory performance was reduced by between 41% and 67% following the routine heading practice, with the effects wearing off after 24 hours.
The University of Stirling study was published in EBioMedicine.
It is the first to detect direct changes in the brain after players were exposed to everyday head impacts, as opposed to clinical brain injuries like concussion.Growing concern’
Researchers fired footballs from a machine designed to simulate the pace and power of a corner kick and asked a group of football players to head a ball 20 times.
The players’ brain function and memory were tested before and after the exercise.
The university said it was yet to investigate whether the changes to the brain were temporary after repeated games of football or if there were long-term consequences on brain health.Dr Magdalena Ietswaart, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Stirling, said the research had been carried out in the light of “growing concern” about links between brain injury in sport and the increased risk of dementia.
“Using a drill most amateur and professional teams would be familiar with, we found there was in fact increased inhibition in the brain immediately after heading and that performance on memory tests was reduced significantly,” she said.
“Although the changes were temporary, we believe they are significant to brain health, particularly if they happen over and over again as they do in football heading.
“With large numbers of people around the world participating in this sport, it is important that they are aware of what is happening inside the brain and the lasting effect this may have.”
Gordon SmithImage copyrightSNS
Image caption
Former SFA chief executive Gordon Smith said Scotland should look at the rules in America
Former Scottish Football Association chief executive Gordon Smith said Scotland should consider copying the American method by putting a ban in place to prevent youngsters heading the ball.
He said: “I do consider that it should be looked at for young players below a certain age. In football, for youngsters these days the ball is often in the air because they play smaller-sided games.
“We should try and discourage it from certain age groups in order to make sue there isn’t any later effects on little kids.”
But he added that if he had his time again, he would still play in the same way: “I think if I was given the choice to play again with the scenario that you were heading the ball and it could do some sort of damage, I would still agree to play.
“That was what I wanted to do more than anything in my life.”
Analysis from BBC Radio Scotland’s John Beattie, a former international rugby player

It’s the unexpected nature of the test results that make them so devastating for football. None of the academics themselves thought that the mere act of heading a normal football a number of times, at a normal speed, as if in a normal situation, would give rise to an immediate reduction in brain function, and the onset memory loss, in the brains of two thirds of the participants tested.
Disturbingly the symptoms took 24 hours to clear. The question that popped into my head was: what if someone does this every day? Do they live a life in a permanently sub concussive state? How does this affect them in older life? What about youngsters whose brains are more prone to damage?
Oh we know about concussions, but we thought the days of heading an old, sodden, leather football were gone. We know about elbows and head knocks, and we know about footballers and rugby players with early onset dementia.
But we didn’t know that just heading a ball caused so much damage to the brain.
As I looked on slightly alarmed, a student footballer sat strapped to a chair in the shiny white laboratory of the Cottrell building on the leafy Stirling university campus. Outside the trees tried to discard their summer green for the stunning autumn gold, but the subject’s face clung on to the olive tones of someone more than slightly nervous.
Wires led from his body to a machine measuring his brain’s ability to react to a stimulus and transfer it to his leg muscles. To my left was a wavy line on a screen that couldn’t lie.
The test was a mock-up for our filming, but the source signals going through his brain and to the machine were real and each one came with a crack, a two-eyed blink, a violent contraction of his quadricep, and a tell-tale jump in the trace signal on that all knowing screen.
Putting students through this before and after headers demonstrated the immediate effects I mentioned earlier.
I played rugby, I have a son who plays rugby, and a daughter who plays international football. I hope beyond hope that this test doesn’t mean I have been a fool to encourage both of them into sport.
But this, of all the research I have seen, is the piece of work that alarms me the most.
More and more research is pointing to the fact that the bit of my body I was least worried about hurting by taking up sport – my brain – might just have been the most vulnerable after all.
And after this, many footballers young and old will be thinking the same.
More research is needed to assess whether this is temporary, and the effects on youngsters.
Psychology professor Lindsay Wilson from Stirling University said: “There’s been scepticism about whether there is a connection between soccer heading and changes in the brain, but this is evidence of both changes in inhibition and also in cognition immediately after heading.

“I think that together with evidence from previous studies it begins to paint a picture that raises concerns.
“What we really need here is more research to try and better understand what is going on.”
When asked about the impact it could have on memory, Prof Wilson said: “The effects we are seeing are rather short term. We really need to identify in more detail what exactly is happening and how long these effects are lasting.”
Dr Angus Hunter, reader in exercise physiology, added: “For the first time, sporting bodies and members of the public can see clear evidence of the risks associated with repetitive impact caused by heading a football.
“We hope these findings will open up new approaches for detecting, monitoring and preventing cumulative brain injuries in sport. We need to safeguard the long-term health of football players at all levels, as well as individuals involved in other contact sports.”

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